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 B222A – Managing Technologies and Innovation TMA - Spring 2014-2015 I- INSCTRUCTIONS II- CASE TO STUDY III- QUESTIONS IV- GRADES DEDUCTION V- AOU POLICY ON PLAGIARISM VI- PT3 FORM I- INSCTRUCTIONS: • Cut-off date: Submit this assignment no later than A

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مُساهمةموضوع: B222A – Managing Technologies and Innovation TMA - Spring 2014-2015 I- INSCTRUCTIONS II- CASE TO STUDY III- QUESTIONS IV- GRADES DEDUCTION V- AOU POLICY ON PLAGIARISM VI- PT3 FORM I- INSCTRUCTIONS: • Cut-off date: Submit this assignment no later than A   الجمعة مارس 27, 2015 7:47 pm

B222A – Managing Technologies and Innovation
TMA - Spring 2014-2015

I- INSCTRUCTIONS
II- CASE TO STUDY
III- QUESTIONS
IV- GRADES DEDUCTION
V- AOU POLICY ON PLAGIARISM
VI- PT3 FORM

I- INSCTRUCTIONS:

• Cut-off date: Submit this assignment no later than April 30, 2015. All late submissions require approval from the branch course coordinator and will be subject to grade deductions.
• Learning outcomes: The purpose of this assignment is to support students’ understanding and application of different concepts learned in B222A, mainly: types of external acquisition, outsourcing, M&A, company’s core competencies, technology transfer and integration and new process development.
• Word count: you should discuss the questions in no more or less than the number of words mentioned for each question (plus or minus 10%).
• Referencing: You must acknowledge all your sources of information using full Harvard Style Referencing (in-text referencing plus list of references at the end). Use E-library: to get journal articles on the topic (Emerald, EBSCO…). Use at least 2 articles.
• Plagiarism: Remember that you should work the information from references into your own original thoughts and INTO YOUR OWN WORDS. Plagiarism will lead to a significant loss of marks. Extensive plagiarism could mean that you failed your TMA. (Refer to AOU definitions of cheating and plagiarism at the end of this document)
• Essay guidance: Your response to each question should take the form of a full essay format. Avoid using subheadings and bullet points. Use B222A textbook and slides, the case, and E-Library. Plan what you will write, and have a well-organized outline.
• Using PT3 form: When you have completed your TMA, you must fill in the assignment form (PT3) posted on your moodle account, taking care to fill all information correctly.
• Turnit-in upload: A soft copy of your TMA and PT3 form should be uploaded to Turnit-in via the link posted on your moodle account, within the cut-off date.
• This TMA is 20% of B222A Grade.

II- CASE TO STUDY
Creating project plans to Focus Product Development
The long-term competitiveness of any manufacturing company depends on the success of its product development capabilities. New product development improves market position and financial performance, creating new industry standards and new niche markets, and even renewing the organization. Yet few development projects fully deliver on their promises. The fact is, much goes wrong during development. In some instances, poor leadership or the absence of essential skills is to be blame. But often problems arise from the way companies approach the development process. They lack what we call a “project planning”.
PreQuip is a large scientific instruments company. In mid-1989, senior management became alarmed about a rash of late product development projects. For some months, the development budget had been rising even as the number of completed projects declined. And many of the projects no longer seemed to reflect the attention of the market.
To get to the root of the problem, the chief executive asked senior managers to compile a list of all the current development projects. They discovered that the company had two to three times more development work than it was capable of completing over its three-year development planning horizon.
With such a tension on resources, delays were inevitable. When a project ran into trouble, engineers from other projects were reassigned. The reshuffling caused delays in other projects, and the effects cascaded. Furthermore, as deadlines slipped and development costs rose, project managers faced pressure to cut on money and compromise quality just to keep their projects moving forward.
The senior management team also discovered that the majority of PreQuip’s development resources – primarily engineers and support staff – was not focused on the projects most critical to the business. PreQuip had no formal process for choosing among development projects. As long as there was money in the budget, the head of the development department had no option but to accept additional project requests.
Many engineers were also spending as much as 50% of their time on non-project-related work. They responded to requests from manufacturing to help with problems on previous products, from sales to help customer problems, from quality assurance to help with reliability problems, and from purchasing to help with qualifying vendors. In addition to spending considerable time fixing problems on previously introduced products, engineers spent too many hours in “information” and “update” meetings. In short, they spent too little time developing the right new products, experimenting with new technologies, or addressing new markets. They spend too much time dealing with short term pressures and not enough time on the strategic mission of product development.
Companies need to focus on how resources are allocated between projects. To create a plan, management categorizes projects based on the amount of resources they consume and on how they will contribute to the company’s product line. Then, by mapping the project types, management can see where gaps exist and make more informed decisions about what types of projects to add and when to add them.

How to Map Projects
The first step in creating a portfolio of projects is to define and map the different types of development projects; defining projects by type provides useful information about how resources should be allocated. The two dimensions for classifying are “the degree of change in the product” and “the degree of change in the manufacturing process”.
Using this, projects are divided into three types: derivative, breakthrough, and platform.




Here is a brief description of each category:
Derivative projects range from cost-reduced versions of existing products to add-ons or enhancements for an existing production process. For example, Kodak’s wide-angle, single-use 35mm camera, the Stretch, was derived from the no-frills Fun Saver introduced in 1990. Designing the Stretch was primarily a matter of changing the lens.
Derivative projects mainly concern: incremental product changes (i.e. new packaging or a new feature, with little or no manufacturing process change); incremental process changes (like a lower cost manufacturing process, improved reliability, or a minor change in materials used) and incremental changes on both dimensions.

Breakthrough projects involve significant changes to existing products and processes. Successful breakthrough projects concern core products and processes that differ fundamentally from previous generations. Like compact disks and fiber-optic cable, they create a whole new product category that can define a new market.
They incorporate revolutionary new technologies and new manufacturing processes. They often require new plants and equipment, operating techniques or supplier networks.

Platform projects are in the middle of the development spectrum. They entail more product and/or process changes than derivatives do, but they don’t introduce the new technologies or materials that breakthrough products do. Honda’s 1990 Accord line is an example of a new platform in the auto industry: Honda introduced a number of manufacturing process and product changes but no fundamentally new technologies. In consumer products , Procter & Gamble’s Liquid Tide is the platform for a whole line of Tide brand products.
Well-planned and well-executed platform products typically offer fundamental improvements in cost, quality, speed, functionality, size, weight, and performance over preceding generations…

Project Mapping in companies
PreQuip was a top-of-the-line producer of mass spectrometers, offering a whole series of high-performance equipment with all the latest features but at a significant price premium. The evolution of mass spectrometer technology was predictable and well defined, and many competitors were able to offer the same capabilities, often at lower prices.
Its customers included scientific laboratories, chemical companies, and oil refineries—users that needed to measure and test accurately the purity of raw materials, and finished products.
Increasingly, customers were putting greater emphasis on price in the purchasing decision. Taking all these customer requirements into account, PreQuip used the project map to rethink its mass spectrometer line. It envisaged a single platform complemented with a series of derivative products, each with a different set of options and each serving a different customer niche. By combining some new product design ideas—modularity and simplicity—with some features that were currently under development, PreQuip created the concept of the C-101 platform, a low-priced, general-purpose mass spectrometer. By adding software and a few new features, PreQuip could easily create derivatives of this platform, all of which could be assembled and tested on a single production line.

In the hospital bed industry, for example, companies that design, manufacture, sell, and service electric beds have faced a mature market for years. They are constantly under pressure to help their customers constrain capital expenditures and operating costs. Technologies are stable and many design changes are minor. Each generation of product typically lasts 8 to 12 years, and companies spend most of their time and energy developing derivative products. As a result, companies find themselves with large and unwieldy product lines.

Mapping projects is critical to any product development effort, but there is no one ideal mix of projects that fits all companies. Every company must pursue the projects that match its opportunities, business strategy and available resources. Of course, the mix evolves over time as projects move out of development into production, as business strategies change, as new markets emerge, and as resources are enhanced.


Source: Adapted from Harvard Business Review, by Steven C.Wheelwright and Kim B. Clark, 1992

III- QUESTIONS:
Answers to these questions should be based on: the case study, material learned from the textbook and online sources (i.e. companies’ webpages, AOU e-library databases…)

1- Choose one of the companies mentioned in the case and write an overview of its profile. This profile should include information such as: the company’s history, purpose, mission, market sector, recent profit, revenues and growth, description of products categories, R&D….
(300 words – 25 marks)

2- What are the different types of projects mentioned in the case? Give a proper description of each type explaining the differences between them, and support your answers by appropriate examples.
(350 words – 25 marks)

3- PreQuip, like many other manufacturing companies, is facing many problems in regards to their project planning. Explain these problems and the reasons behind and suggest a TM tools that might be very useful in such situations.
(350 words - 25 marks)

4- What TM activities are involved in the case? Justify your answers with proper arguments and explanation.
(300 words – 25 marks)

IV- GRADES DEDUCTION:
TMA Presentation: (up to 5 marks)
Up to 5 marks should be deducted for poor presentation or poor organization of the TMA outline and discussion or TMA presented without PT3.
Proper referencing: (up to 5 marks)
Referencing should be both in-text referencing, plus a list of references at the end using Harvard style. Up to 5 marks should be deducted for poor referencing.

Use of E-Library: (up to 5 marks)
A minimum use of 2 articles from AOU e-library is required to support the discussions. Up to 5 marks should be deducted for no use or poor use of e-library.

Word count: (up to 5 marks)
The answers should be within the specified word count. A deviation of 10% is acceptable; if more, a deduction up to 5 marks will be applied.



V- AOU POLICY ON PLAGIARISM:
Arab Open University Definitions of cheating and plagiarism:
Plagiarism means copying from internet, from unreferenced sources, from other students’ TMAs or any other source. Penalties for plagiarism range from failure in the TMA or the course, to expulsion from the university.
According to the Arab Open University By-laws, the following acts represent cases of cheating and plagiarism:
• Verbatim copying of printed material and submitting them as part of TMAs without proper academic acknowledgement and documentation.
• Verbatim copying of material from the Internet, including tables and graphics.
• Copying other students’ notes or reports.
• Using paid or unpaid material prepared for the student by individuals or firms.
• Utilization of, or proceeding to utilize, contraband materials or devices in examinations.

Penalty on plagiarism: The following is the standard plagiarism penalty applied across branches as per Article 11 of the university by-laws was revisited and modified to be more explicit with regard to plagiarism on TMAs. Penalties include the following:
1) Awarding of zero for a TMA wherein more than 20% of the content is plagiarized.
2) Documentation of warning in student record.
3) Failure in the course to dismissal from the University.

VI- PT3 FORM
Use of PT3 form is mandatory as a cover page for your TMA. This form is provided to you by your tutor or posted on LMS. TMA presented without PT3 form is subject to grades deduction. This PT3 form will be used by your tutor to add comments and marks and will be returned to you with the annotated work.

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B222A – Managing Technologies and Innovation TMA - Spring 2014-2015 I- INSCTRUCTIONS II- CASE TO STUDY III- QUESTIONS IV- GRADES DEDUCTION V- AOU POLICY ON PLAGIARISM VI- PT3 FORM I- INSCTRUCTIONS: • Cut-off date: Submit this assignment no later than A
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